What is polyester fiber?
Polyester fiber is commonly known as “polyester”. It is a synthetic fiber obtained by spinning a polyester obtained by polycondensation of an organic dibasic acid and a diol, and is abbreviated as PET fiber. It was invented in 1941 and is the first large variety of synthetic fibers.
Compared with natural fibers, polyester has the disadvantages of low water content, poor gas permeability, poor dyeability, easy pilling, and easy staining. In order to improve these disadvantages, chemical modification and physical deformation are employed.
Chemical modification methods are:
1. Copolymerization of a monomer having a hydrophilic group or an oligomeric polyethylene glycol, etc., can improve the moisture absorption rate of the fiber;
2. Adding monomers with antistatic properties for copolymerization can improve the antistatic and anti-staining properties of the fibers;
3. Adding phosphorus, halogen-containing and antimony compounds to improve the flame resistance of the fiber;
4. Using a lower degree of polymerization of polyester spinning to improve the anti-pilling ability;
5. Copolymerization with a monomer of a pro-dye group (such as a sulfonate, etc.) to improve the dyeing properties of the fiber.
Physically deformed, there are various shaped polyester, composite spinning with other high polymers, colored polyester, fine denier polyester and high shrinkage polyester.
The polyester chips can be used for spinning, preparing polyester films, polyester bottles, etc. after drying and melting. During the melting process, the moisture contained in the slice can cause the polyester to hydrolyze and affect the spinning performance and fiber quality. Therefore, it must be dried before spinning to reduce the water content of the slice to less than 0.01%. After slicing, the dried polyester chips are heated and melted in a screw, extruded and fed into each spinning part of the spinning box, and accurately metered and filtered by a metering pump, and then sprayed from the spinning holes of the spinneret. Out. The diameter of the orifice is generally from 0.15 to 0.30 mm. The sprayed melt stream is cooled and solidified into strands by the cooling gas stream.
The cooled strands are classified into polyester filaments and polyester staple fibers (or polyester staples) according to different processing techniques.
2. Polyester short yarn
When spinning short fibers, a plurality of lines are brought together, and after being wet and oiled, they fall into the silk drum. The finished product is obtained by processes such as bundling, stretching, crimping, heat setting, and cutting. For example, after a tensile heat setting at about 180 ° C after stretching, a high-strength, low-elongation short fiber having a strength of 6 cN/dtex or more and an elongation of 30% or less can be obtained. Polyester staple fibers are classified into cotton staple fibers (length 38 mm) and wool staple fibers (length 56 mm) for blending with cotton fibers and wool, respectively.
3. Polyester filament
When the filament is spun, the solidified strand is wound onto the bobbin at a rate of about 3,500 m/min to obtain a pre-oriented yarn (POY). POY can not be directly used for weaving. POY can be used for weaving or deformation processing by stretching, shaping or twisting to obtain drawn yarn (DT), stretch textured yarn (DTY) or twisted silk. Deformed silk. After the yarn is solidified, it is directly stretched by oiling and wound at 4500-5000 m/min to obtain a fully drawn yarn (FDY), which can be used for weaving.
The US commodity kodel is another polyester fiber that has been industrially produced. It is spun from a polymer obtained by polycondensation of terephthalic acid with 1,4-cyclohexane dimethanol. Compared with polyester, the specific gravity is 1.22, the melting point is 290-295 ° C, the decomposition resistance is strong, and the strength and elongation of the fiber are slightly lower. Suitable for blending with cotton, wool, etc., the fabric is made of elastic, hand, wrinkle and pilling resistance, but the strength and wear resistance are poor.
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